Happy Mother's Day from Kissimmee Prairie Preserve!
Babies on Board!
Show appreciation for Moms everywhere!
Beautiful Butterworts, by Paul Miller
What do you do if you’re a plant growing in soil that doesn’t provide enough nourishment? Well, how about eating insects? Kissimmee Prairie Preserve has several species of plants that actually eat insects: sundews, bladderworts, butterworts, and one species of pitcher plant. Here we discuss the winter/spring blooming butterworts.
Butterworts, or ‘Pings’ (an abbreviation of the scientific genus Pinguicula), are members of an insectivorous plant family called the Lentibulariaceae which includes the bladderworts. It is the most species rich family of carnivorous plants on Earth. By definition, carnivorous plants make their living digesting the protein provided by insects that they capture.
The butterworts that occur in the Preserve are perennial and spend much of their life cycle as a ‘basal rosette’— a cluster of leaves that remain flat on the ground. The upper surface of the leaves have minute hairs topped with glands (best seen with a dissecting microscope) that exude a sticky substance. Small insects such as gnats become stuck to the surface of the leaves and are chemically digested providing nutrients to the plant. The basal rosettes of butterworts remain relatively inconspicuous in the prairie. They spend most of their life cycle eating bugs, quietly hidden from view by grasses and other plants that reach to the sky until it is time to flower.
The Yellow-flowered Butterwort is much more common in the Preserve and folks on a Prairie Buggy tour should keep their eyes on the sides of the trail during these months to catch a glimpse. The Blueflower Butterwort is less common and likely has a more specific habitat requirement. Who knows why the Blueflower is so picky? Perhaps a curious mind will be inspired to investigate the habitat and figure that out.
Guest author, Paul Miller started working at Kissimmee Prairie Preserve in 2002 on the endangered Florida Grasshopper Sparrow. In 2004 he became the Preserve's full time biologist. Since then, he has been casually studying the diversity of prairie plants when he isn’t sitting at his desk frantically trying to stay ahead of paperwork.
With the holidays approaching, it is a good time to talk about turkeys.
Kissimmee Prairie Preserve's turkeys are one of five subspecies found in the United States. Smaller and darker than its much more numerous Eastern cousins, Florida's Osceola Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo osceola) were named for the famous Seminole Indian chief, and are only found in the Florida peninsula.
While the Preserve's turkeys are (thankfully) protected and not going to end up as Thanksgiving dinner, don't think they are living the carefree life! Wild turkeys are a major prey species -- which means their role in the ecosystem is to provide food for a whole lot of other animals. Raccoons, bobcats, striped and spotted skunks, coyotes, owls, hawks, crows, and snakes are just some of the animals that prey on turkeys, their eggs and their young. It should be no surprise that they have developed great eyesight and have a reputation for being extremely wary. They have also evolved to produce many young and will re-nest if their eggs are destroyed.
Fire On The Prairie, by Jen Benson-Hughes Nighttime Prairie Wildfire, ©Jen Benson-Hughes
Most lightning strike wildfires occur during the transition season—the time of year after the winter freeze and before the rainy season when dead vegetation is cured and the soil is dry. Most thunderstorms in Florida are generated by convection, the result of instability in the atmosphere. Our area of Florida receives 8-16 flashes per kilometer per year! Lightning strike wildfires may be extinguished by the next thunderstorm cell, but in the past when left to their own devices, wildfires could continue to burn for days or weeks (maybe months). This rarely happens today due to roads, canals, and human activity. Controlled burning (prescribed fire) is a safer, cheaper way to restore and maintain an ecosystem than allowing wildfires. Controlled burns are simply fires that are thoughtfully planned with proper preparation on the ground, and skillfully executed by trained professionals to produce the desired effects for the land. Wildfire has the potential to do extreme damage if the wrong conditions exist, such as severe drought and high winds.
In the prairie, fire equals life! It is a beautiful relationship that inspires many of us to capture the prairie’s beauty with our cameras, and we keep it in our hearts and minds. One of the greatest joys in this profession is watching the prairie and all its inhabitants thrive after a growing season fire. Oh, and autumn—you have to see the prairie wildflowers in September/October—gorgeous!
NOTE: A complete version of this article, with more images, will be published in an upcoming Kissimmee Prairie Star newsletter.
Hiking the Prairie Loop Trail, #1 of a series Eastern Meadowlark serenading
Article and photos by Donna Bollenbach
If you really want to experience Kissimmee Prairie Preserve, take a hike.
There are over 100 miles of multi-use trails in the park that can be travelled by foot, bike or horseback. The most popular hike is the Prairie Loop Trail. Approximately 4.6 miles, it traverses a variety of natural habitats including the dry prairie, moist wetlands, and shady hardwood hammocks.
The trailhead is adjacent to the last campsite in the equestrian campground. Here you find the first of many metal poles with blue blazes that mark the trail. As you head out on the first leg, watch for wild turkeys, which are often seen emerging from the brush.
About 1/8 mile into the trail you will come to a small stream. After crossing, take a moment to scan the prairie on the left. Depending on time of year, the landscape may be painted with bushy yellow golden rod, tall stalks of purple blazing star, nodding pink meadow beauties or the silvery leaves and creamy white flowers of the pawpaw plant.
As you walk along the stream, look for deer. While deer may be seen throughout the park, I have seen an eight-point buck and several herds of does from this spot. In spring, you may even be rewarded with the sight of a doe with a spotted fawn.
After awhile, the trail will divert slightly southwest. As you approach the first hammock you may startle a grazing deer grazing under the live oaks. This is a good place to stop and enjoy the shade before continuing your hike in open prairie where you will hike about 3/4 of a mile to the next hammock.
Look to the skies over the prairie for Red-shouldered Hawks, American Kestrels, Crested Caracaras, Swallow-tailed Kites, and Vultures. These predatory birds may be spotted soaring over the landscape or perched atop snags. A rare White-tailed Kite may also be spotted from the trail.
Turn your eyes closer to the ground to see the multitude of wildflowers in the prairie. From delicate Lady's tresses orchids, to blue-eyed and yellow-eyed grasses, to a colorful pallet of sunflowers and asters, many flowers can be seen from the trail. You may also see many butterflies, including a variety of swallowtails, skippers and hairstreaks.
The next hammock is filled primarily with tall palms. The ground, which receives little light, is mostly bare except for the litter of dead palm fronds. Look straight up into the palms to admire their height and stature.
At the trail's mid-point is a primitive campground with a few picnic tables and a covered pavilion. This is a great place to stop and eat a snack or lunch. From there, you will head north. For the next 3/4 of a mile the prairie will be on your right and a strand of trees along a natural slough will be on your left. This is another place to look for deer.
When you reach Military Trail you are 2/3s through your hike. You will head east, back toward the campground. This part is over shell road, and can be very hot, so make sure you ration water to have enough. Military Trail is a good place to spot snakes sunning in the road. Most snakes in Florida are harmless, but the prairie is also home to Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, so be cautious.
The real beauty of this part of the trail is the landscape: Note the contrasting colors and textures of the landscape: The points of the fan-shaped Palmetto leaves, the sweep of the wiregrasses, the silvery soft leaves of the pawpaw and the shiny green dwarf oaks. As the park literature suggests: Enjoy the prairie by looking into it, not at it.
Donna Bollenbach, a nature photographer for over 10 years, spends her leisure time hiking, camping and photographing nature in parks and preserves throughout Florida. She first discovered Kissimmee Prairie Preserve in 2005 and has since hiked over 50 miles in the park. In addition to being a published photographer, Donna is the author of an e-book, The Art of Nature Photography, available on Amazon.
NOTE: A longer, complete version of this article, with more images, will be published in an upcoming Kissimmee Prairie Star newsletter.
Night Sky Watching at Kissimmee Prairie, by Bill Nigg
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Amateur astronomers come to Kissimmee Prairie Preserve from more than a hundred miles away to do serious imaging with the latest astrophoto equipment— which often costs more than their car. Computer controlled electronic cameras and image processing allow them to find and take observatory quality pictures. Inspired by the Hubble, and in a quest and challenge to collect similar images for self education, they camp for several nights prepared for a clear sky. The new moon week is chosen each month to avoid the moon's natural light pollution. Dark sky is needed to find most unique objects between the dim stars and allow maximum exposure success. the Preserve has "the Astronomy Pad"—a separated site designed for astronomers, to minimize light from campers and campfires.
When you get the opportunity to camp overnight at KPPSP, bring a star map. You can print one from your local astronomy club website, at the public library, or from an astronomy magazine. You will get to see the nature of the universe in a dark sky environment.
Friends of Kissimmee Prairie Preserve now has membership available online—and we need you!
Fall Color in the Florida Prairie, by Tim Kozusko
Kissimmee Prairie wildflowers give autumn leaves a run for the money.
Fueled by a nutrient flush from early growing season fire, and quenched by summer rains, the Prairie comes alive in color, adding the yellows of goldenrod and goldentops to the blues and purples of the gayfeather and paintbrush.
Where fire has triggered flowering, wiregrass and lopsided Indiangrass will “tower” over the palmettos and impart a look reminiscent of wheat fields. As autumn progresses you will see the fluffy seeds of the groundsel bush and the broomsedge grasses mature and take to the air on the breeze as the first cold fronts move through.
But there is much more to this display. Many of these plants are annuals that grow through the summer, flower, and die, leaving seeds behind to brush next year’s pastels over the landscape. The plants have captured sunlight and stored it in tissues, pollen, and fruits that either feed migratory songbirds or the insects that the birds eat to replace energy spent flying south.
NABA Butterfly Count at Kissimmee Prairie Preserve
July 14th, by Linda Cooper
Participants are divided into teams — one covers the old Audubon part, one covers the road to the Visitor’s Center and Kilpatrick Hammock, one covers from the hammock to near the Kissimmee River. We even have a team that covers the roads outside the park. When you consider that Florida has 41 summer counts you can see how productive the prairie habitat is for butterflies. In good years we expect 55 to 60 species here and a large number of them are skippers.
We meet at the parking area at the Preserve entrance at 9 a.m. on Saturday, July 14. You need to bring LOTS to drink, a lunch, closed-toe footwear that can get wet, sunscreen and close-focusing binoculars if possible. Digital cameras are encouraged. That is how we identify skippers if there is a question. There is walking involved, but not over great distances. The end of the count depends on if we have rain or not, but is officially over by 5 p.m. Preserve entrance fees are waived that day for participants. Lake Region Audubon in Polk County sponsors the count so there is no fee. Participants receive a copy of the count after it is tallied and entered into the NABA web site.
If you want to participate or have questions, please email us at LCooper298@aol.com
Where the Rare is Commonplace... or not.
The most notable of these is the federally endangered Florida Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus), a subspecies of grasshopper sparrow endemic to Florida's fire-dependent dry prairie habitat. Loss of habitat and other stressors (such as exotic, invasive fire ants) have reduced the population of this secretive little bird to where only a few hundred are believed to remain. Kissimmee Prairie Preserve is among the very few places where it is making its last stand.
To learn more about the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow visit the FWC website.
One of those more "commonplace" birds that is often seen in the summer flying gracefully over the Preserve is the beautiful and elegant Swallow-tailed Kite. And while they always provide a thrill, there is another kite seldom seen in Florida—the White-tailed Kite—a spectacular raptor known to nest in the Preserve. A very lucky summer visitor might spot one hovering while hunting above prairie, or even perched on a snag.
Friends of Kissimmee Prairie Preserve
Random thoughts on and pictures of Kissimmee Prairie Preserve.
unless otherwise noted
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Florida Brown Snake
Florida Grasshopper Sparrow
Prairie Loop Trail